In Germany, several species are poplar and more suitable to be used in wood industry. They are considered as a sustainable source of timber for building construction, manufacturing furniture, and other woodworking projects.
It worth mentioning that as one of the most developed countries in European union, Germany has a large population of trees from different deciduous and conifer species.
But, due to the concerns about the sustainability of the resources and to keep the natural forests for the generations to come, there is a great plan to protect forests from over-harvesting.
It is important to note that from 3 hundred years ago, Germany managed sustainability of its forestry industry. So, in a specific period of time, you should cut no more wood or timber than what grows in the forests.
In 1813, for the first time, scientists in the Germany formulated the sustainability concept for forests in Europe.
And, today Germany is one of the few countries in the world which has strict rules to protect its forests.
In the following, we’re going to explore popular woods and trees in Germany and have a look at the importance of different species in the wood industry.
read more: The Most Common Wood In Sweden
Germany has a significant woodworking industry, and there are numerous wood factories located throughout the country. These factories specialize in various aspects of wood processing, including sawmilling, furniture manufacturing, timber construction, and wood products production.
Wood reserves in Germany
Around one third of the area in Germany is covered with forests. They are either privately owned or in the hand of states.
But, the important note is that in the past years, the forests and amount wood reserves in the country increased. Why?
Because, every year around 70 to 80 million cubic meters of woods are cut down and approximately more than 90 million cubic meters of wood grows in the forests.
This means furniture manufacturers, constructions, and paper industry can use the woods as a natural resource that is obtained from forests.
What are dominating woods in Germany?
Several species are among the main sources of wood production in the country. They account for nearly 80 percent of wood resources in Germany.
We’ve listed them below:
Pine tree is usually found in the northern states of Germany. But, spruce in considered as the main tree in the south of country.
In the central parts of Germany, oak and beech are among predominant trees. They usually grow in uplands.
Popular woods in Germany – Spruce
As one of the most popular types of woods in Germany, spruce timber can be used in several sections like:
- Construction industry
- Pallets and packaging
- Panel products
- Paper production
Keep in mind that as a type of plant, spruce is prone to numerous diseases. So, comparing with other types of woods, spruce timbers have several disadvantages.
For example, timbers from spruce tree has the lowest durability. Specially, when it comes to be used in flooring or be in contact with the ground.
Popular woods in Germany – Pine
The woods and timber from pine tree are suitable for making several woodworking products like:
- Wall cladding
- Interior trims
It is also possible to use pine wood to produce paper, veneers, and plywood.
As a raw material for manufacturing furniture, pine has a medium quality. Specially, when you compare it with other high performance types of woods in Germany.
read more: Difference Between Oak And Pine
Popular types of wood – Oak
One of the most common types of woods in the world that are used for a variety of applications is produced from oak species.
For example, you can use oak wood for:
- Making furniture
read more: What Wood Is Best For Outdoor Flooring?
Keep in mind: Oak wood is considered as a strong and durable wood. It has an attractive light color and is resistant to fungi.
Popular woods in Germany – Beech
Due to the forest transformation in Germany, beech is one of the most important species in this country and can be a valuable source for development of wood industry in central Europe. Beech can play an important role in the future development of wood industry.
So, we’re going to discuss about changes in the German forests. We’ll also talk about the importance of beech in the future of wood industry in Europe.
Forests’ transformation in Germany
In the 20th century, after decimation of forests in Germany, and after second world war, wood resources decreased in many forests.
So, to compensate the loos of wood reserves, several species that were fast-growing were planted in the forests.
Pine and spruce were among newly planted species in the forests.
But, due to their lower resistant to the diseases, pine and spruce had several problematic issues.
So, in recent decades, the trend is changing from conifers toward other species that have broad leaves, and are more resistant to diseases.
Popular woods in Germany in 2020
In 2020, around 45 percent of German woods were made of deciduous trees and nearly 55 percent of them were from conifers.
The change in popular woods in Germany and their reserves happened after the changes made in the management of forests in 1980.
So, in the coming years, we’ll see a significant change in the amount wood and timber production in the industry. Why?
Because, timber production moves from trees like pine and spruce toward the woods and timbers obtained from broad leaves species like beech.
To give a quantitative point of view, as a valuable natural resource for the next generation, the forests and wood reserves in Germany will have around 75 percent of its products from deciduous trees and around 25 percent of them from conifers.
This great change will make beech one of the most popular trees and the main source of wood and timber in Germany.
most common tree in germany
The most common tree in Germany is the Norway spruce (Picea abies), known as “Fichte” in German. It is a coniferous tree that is native to Europe and widely distributed across Germany. The Norway spruce is known for its tall stature, with a straight trunk and dark green needles. It is an important tree species in Germany’s forestry industry, used for timber production, paper manufacturing, and Christmas tree cultivation.
Other common tree species found in Germany include:
- European beech (Fagus sylvatica): The European beech is a deciduous tree and the most common broadleaf tree in Germany. It is known for its smooth, gray bark and vibrant green foliage. The beech forests of Germany are highly valued for their ecological importance.
- Oak (Quercus spp.): Several oak species are found in Germany, including the common oak (Quercus robur) and the sessile oak (Quercus petraea). Oaks are long-lived trees known for their sturdy wood and distinctive lobed leaves.
- Silver fir (Abies alba): The silver fir is a large evergreen conifer that is native to the mountains of Central Europe. It is commonly found in the southern regions of Germany, particularly in the Black Forest and the Bavarian Alps.
- Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris): The Scots pine is a hardy coniferous tree that is well-adapted to various soil and climatic conditions. It is found throughout Germany, including in heathlands, sandy areas, and mountainous regions.
- Common birch (Betula pendula): The common birch is a deciduous tree with distinctive white bark and delicate, drooping branches. It is found in various parts of Germany, especially in wetland areas and along riverbanks.
These are just a few examples of the most common tree species in Germany. The country’s forests are diverse, consisting of a wide range of both coniferous and broadleaf trees.
Beech and its importance for wood industry
As one of the most common species in central Europe, beech is a deciduous tree with the largest resources in the world.
This tree can produce more than 18 million cubic meters of wood in Germany.
But, just more than 10 million cubic meters of woods are cut down and harvested in country.
This means that in Germany only less than two third of beech woods are harvested.
So, the current reserves of beech timber and wood is estimated to be more than 500 million cubic meters.
We can conclude that in near future beech timber will become the most popular types of wood in Germany.
Does construction industry in Germany use beech timber?
In the past years, building construction in Germany uses timbers that are originated from soft wood species.
So, even it has great potentials, beech is not a widely used timber in construction industry.
Because, more than 90 percent of wood in constructions are made from softwood species.
read more: How Long Does It Take To Dry Wood Naturally?
Why softwoods are more popular?
Beech is less straight and has more knots than softwoods. It is also difficult to machine and cut beech wood.
Also, drying process for conifers is easier than that of broad-leaved trees. This means that hardwoods are more expensive than softwoods.
But if you look at the other side coin, beech timber is harder and stronger than softwoods. this is the main benefit that we’ll talk about later.
read more: Beech Wood Vs Walnut Wood
Where to use beech wood?
As we mentioned above, the demand for softwoods in building construction have increased in the past years. Does this mean that beech timber is no longer a popular wood in Germany?
No, as one of the best raw materials to make their products, manufacturers of furniture use beech wood.
Also, it is one of the most important raw materials in the production of different types of paper in Germany.
Furthermore, you can use beech wood as a material for cellulose production or as a solid fuel.
We can even say that beech can be considered as one of the most popular woods to make high-end materials.
What are popular woods for furniture in Germany?
Oak and beech timbers can be used for making furniture in Germany. But, you can find other popular woods in Germany that are used for manufacturing furniture.
Development of high-end wooden materials in Germany
Innovative and high end materials that are made by using beech wood in Germany can turn into valuable products for construction industry.
Their superior performance can help human to use them in the modern building. They can turn our town and cities into a carbon sink that is capable of protecting our nature.
The only thing we need to do is to produce high-end timbers and wooden construction material at an industrial scale.
Role of softwoods and hardwoods in Germany
Today, nearly all the timbers in construction industry are made from softwoods in Germany (nearly 99 percent).
But, even though, they have a small portion of uses in the industry, the fact is physical properties of hardwoods are superior.
Can Germany use hardwood in future?
Yes, the transformation of forests will force the industry to find and develop new approaches to produce high-end materials by using hardwoods.
As beech is going to be dominant type of wood in central Europe, construction industry is doomed to change its direction towards beech wood as a sustainable resource in Germany.
Is BauBuche a strong wood in Germany?
As a laminated lumber product from beech, BauBuche is one of the most important construction materials that is made by using hardwoods.
In Germany, this product has a competitive price and much stronger properties than softwoods.
Its bending strength is much higher than that of spruce. Another important note is that BauBuche has paved the way for more innovative designs in construction industry.
woods of deutschland
The woods of Deutschland, or Germany, are known for their natural beauty, rich biodiversity, and cultural significance. Germany is home to various forested areas, including national parks, nature reserves, and picturesque landscapes. Here are a few notable woods in Germany:
Black Forest (Schwarzwald): Located in the state of Baden-Württemberg, the Black Forest is one of the most famous wooded regions in Germany. It is known for its dense forests, rolling hills, charming villages, and picturesque hiking trails.
Bavarian Forest (Bayerischer Wald): Situated in southeastern Germany, the Bavarian Forest is one of the largest forested areas in Europe. It is a protected national park and offers diverse flora and fauna, including the rare Eurasian lynx and the European bison.
Hainich National Park: Located in the state of Thuringia, Hainich National Park is home to the largest continuous deciduous forest in Germany. It is a UNESCO World Heritage site and renowned for its ancient beech trees and the unique treetop walkway, allowing visitors to explore the forest from above.
Teutoburg Forest (Teutoburger Wald): Stretching across the states of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia, the Teutoburg Forest is known for its historical significance. It was the site of the famous Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 CE, where Germanic tribes defeated Roman forces. The forest offers scenic landscapes, hiking trails, and historical sites.
Eifel National Park: Situated in western Germany, the Eifel National Park is characterized by its ancient volcanic landscapes, dense forests, and picturesque lakes. It is a protected area that provides habitats for various wildlife species, including wildcats, black storks, and wild boars.
These are just a few examples of the beautiful woods and forests you can explore in Germany. Each region offers unique landscapes, recreational activities, and opportunities to connect with nature.